dictatorship government

The power structures of dictatorships vary, and different definitions of dictatorship consider different elements of this structure. [14], Unless they have undertaken a self-coup, those seizing power typically have little governmental experience and do not have a detailed policy plan in advance. To be considered a dictatorship means that a country is known to be run by one person without any checks and balances on his power. [84] Other nationalist movements in Europe established dictatorships based on the fascist model. In some such countries, elected presidents and prime ministers captured personal power by establishing one-party rule and suppressing the opposition, while in others the army seized power and established military dictatorships. But in a modern-day dictatorship government, one person (or a small group of individuals) has complete control over the government regardless of whether there is a state of emergency or not. This page was last edited on 27 April 2023, at 19:44. - Definition & Examples, Probationary Period of Employment: Policy & Termination, Historical Cost: Definition, Principle & Advantages, What is Strategic Sourcing? These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'dictatorship.' A dictator that has concentrated significant power is more likely to be exiled, imprisoned, or killed after ouster, and accordingly they are more likely to refuse negotiation and cling to power. [107] Dictatorships are often recipients of foreign aid on the condition that they make advances toward democratization. Under this system, there are three types of dictatorships. [107] The development of the internet and digital communication in the 21st century have prompted dictatorships to shift from traditional means of control to digital ones, including the use of artificial intelligence to analyze mass communications, internet censorship to restrict the flow of information, and troll farms to manipulate public opinion. In very few cases, a small group of people holds this power, which is called an oligarchy. However, over the years, these governments evolved into national leaders and were put in their position of power by nationalistic military officers. This instability in turn required rulers to become increasingly authoritarian to stay in power, further propagating dictatorship in Africa. [105] To maintain power, Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet organized Operation Condor with other South American dictators to facilitate cooperation between their respective intelligence agencies and secret police organizations. ", "Dictators and Their Followers: A Theory of Dictatorship", "The many Robespierres from 1794 to the present", "A Family of Political Concepts: Tyranny, Despotism, Bonapartism, Caesarism, Dictatorship, 1750-1917", "The Age of the Caudillos: A Chapter in Hispanic American History", "Europe Will be a Fascist Europe: July 1934May 1936", "African military coups d'tat, 19562001: frequency, trends and distribution", "From Protest to Change of Regime: The 419 Revolt and The Fall of the Rhee Regime in South Korea*", "The waning of the military coup in Arab politics", "Introduction: Studying Communist Dictatorships: From Comparative to Transnational History", "Military Coups and Military Rule in Latin America", "Cuba: The United States and Batista, 1952-58", "The Predicament of Europe's 'Last Dictator', "The Kremlin Emboldened: How Putin Wins Support", "The Resistible Rise of Vladimir Putin: Russia's Nightmare Dressed Like a Daydream", "Biden suggests Putin is a 'dictator' who has committed 'genocide half a world away', "5. dictatorship: 1 n a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) Government Overview, Purpose & Types | What is a Government? The dictator has absolute power. [35][36] These dictatorships often emerge either from loosely organized seizures of power, giving the leader opportunity to consolidate power, or from democratically elected leaders in countries with weak institutions, giving the leader opportunity to change the constitution. [20][21] They are most common in developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The root word dictator comes from the Roman Republic when a "dictator" would be appointed temporarily during an emergency or state crisis. In many cases, of course, such provisions have been the instruments with which dictators have overthrown the regime. [79] Fascism developed in Europe as a rejection of liberalism, socialism, and modernism, and the first fascist political parties formed in the 1920s. [71] The aftermath of World War I resulted in a major shift in European politics, establishing new governments, facilitating internal change in older governments, and redrawing the boundaries between countries, allowing opportunities for these movements to seize power. Nazi Germany under Hitler and the Soviet Union under Stalin are the leading examples of modern totalitarian dictatorships. Although the term oligarchy is rarely used to refer to contemporary political systems, the phenomenon of irresponsible rule by small groups has not vanished from the world. Hours after Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaid landed in Miami after being thrown out of Colombia, I talked with him extensively about Colombian President Gustavo Petro's initiative to . It was initially aligned with Yugoslavia, but its alignment shifted throughout the Cold War between Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and China. In 1989, the Soviet Union was dissolved, and communism was abandoned by the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through a series of revolutions. In personalist dictatorships, the elite corps are usually made up of close friends or family members of the dictator, who typically handpicks these individuals to serve their posts. The other was a constitutional democracy. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Kim Jong-un is currently the Supreme Leader of North Korea. While royal rule, as legitimized by blood descent, had almost vanished as an effective principle of government in the modern world, monocracya term that comprehends the rule of non-Western royal absolutists, of generals and strongmen in Latin America and Asia, of a number of leaders in postcolonial Africa, and of the totalitarian heads of communist statesstill flourished. . A dictatorship is a form of government where one person, or a small group of individuals, can make decisions without effective constitutional limitations. The 20th-century dictatorships in Latin American countries had different aims. Articles on Dictatorship. [129] Revolution takes place when the opposition group grows large enough that elites in the regime cannot suppress it or choose not to. The government was described as a dictatorship of the proletariat in which power was exercised by soviets. Western constitutional democracies have provided examples of another type of contemporary dictatorship. The role of dictator was created for instances when a single leader was needed to command and restore stability. In a dictatorial government, power rests with one supreme ruler. Most today are one of five types: Approximately 10% of countries today are considered dictatorships. Current dictatorships include Russia, Equatorial New Guinea, and North Korea. The 20th century saw the rise of fascist and communist dictatorships in Europe; fascism was eradicated in the aftermath of World War II in 1945, while communism spread to other continents, maintaining prominence until the end of the Cold War in 1991. They were national rather than provincial leaders and often were put in their position of power by nationalistic military officers. These countries maintain parliaments and human rights organizations, but these remain under the control of the countries' respective dictators. A dictatorship is a form of government characterized by the absolute rule of one person or a very small group of people who hold all political power. Personalist dictatorships are more common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to less established institutions in the region. [122] The form of government does not correlate with the amount of economic growth, and dictatorships on average grow at the same rate as democracies, though dictatorships have been found to have larger fluctuations. [101] Albania was established as a communist dictatorship under Enver Hoxha in 1944. According to Ford, Dictatorship is the assumption of extra-legal authority by the Head of the State. In the most brutal dictatorships, the citizens live in extreme poverty because the government withholds food and supplies in order to keep the people under control. [145], Van den Bosch, Jeroen J. J., Personalist Rule in Africa and Other World Regions, (London-New York: Routledge, 2021): 13-16, wave of left-wing revolutionary movements, List of countries by system of government, "Review: Totalitarianism, Social Science, and the Margins", "Generals, Dictators, and Kings: Authoritarian Regimes and Civil Conflict, 19732004", "Elites, Single Parties and Political Decision-making in Fascist-era Dictatorships", "Theories of dictatorships: sub-types and explanations", "Personalization of Power and Repression in Dictatorships", "The Tyranny of Dictatorship: When the Greek Tyrant Met the Roman Dictator", "The Five Ancient Criteria of Democracy: The Apotheosis of Equality", "When was the title Dictator perpetuus given to Caesar? Benefits of Dictatorship. This violence is frequently exercised through institutions such as military or police forces. Dictatorship. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dictatorship. [117] Generally, two research approaches exist: the minimalist approach, which focuses on whether a country has continued elections that are competitive, and the substantive approach, which expands the concept of democracy to include human rights, freedom of the press, and the rule of law. These individuals form an inner circle, making up a class of elites that hold a degree of power within the dictatorship and receive benefits in exchange for their support. While portrayed to their people as benevolent, loving rulers, dictators typically come to power simply to benefit themselves. [50] Monarchies allow for strict rules of succession that produce a peaceful transfer of power on the monarch's death, but this can also result in succession disputes if multiple members of the royal family claim a right to succeed. dictator + -ship, as translation of Latin dicttra. The general population has no say in the functioning of the government. They tended to ally with a particular social class and attempted either to maintain the interests of wealthy and privileged elites or institute far-reaching left-wing social reforms. The ruler of a dictatorship is called a dictator. Origin 1540-1580 Middle English < Latin dicttor (dictator + ship) What is a Dictatorship [40] Personalist dictatorships often collapse with the death of the dictator. There are no checks and balances of power that these leaders need to conform to. She has a Master's degree in History. Delivered to your inbox! Dictators tend to resort to force or fraud to gain political power. [31], Personalist dictatorships are regimes in which all of the power lies in the hands of a single individual. Between 1950 and 2016, one-party dictatorships made up 57% of authoritarian regimes in the world,[26] and one-party dictatorships have continued to expand more quickly than other forms of dictatorship in the latter half of the 20th century. They are more likely to end in violence and less likely to democratize than other forms of dictatorship. [87], The decolonisation of Africa prompted the creation of new governments, many of which became dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez spoke out in support of the Israeli judicial reform protests in a video that was screened at the anti-judicial reform demonstrations in Tel Aviv on Saturday . Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church. It is not necessarily ruled by a theology or belief. Many personalist regimes will install open ballots to protect their regimes and implement heavy security measures and censorship for those whose personal preferences do not align with the values of the leader. Hybrid dictatorships are regimes that have a combination of these classifications. The simple forms of oligarchic rule associated with pre-industrial societies are, of course, rapidly disappearing. In a dictatorship, a single person, a dictator, has absolute power over the state. Dictatorship in the technologically advanced totalitarian regimes of modern fascism and communism was distinctively different from the authoritarian regimes of either Latin America or the postcolonial states of Africa and Asia. Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, and Palestine are the only democratic nations in the region, with Israel being the only nation in this region that affords broad political liberties to its citizens. The leader of a dictatorship is called a dictator. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many monarchies (a form of dictatorship) started to decline and disappear. Omissions? You won't find a dictator who calls himself a dictator. In oligarchies, the threat of a military coup comes from the strength of the military weighed against the concessions made to the military. Since many of these methods are graphic, it might be best to either use more text in the graphic organizer, or make any drawings look less realistic and more cartoonish. Amy has a master's of library and information science and a master's of arts in history. | Examples and Characteristics. Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws). [111][112][113] Latin America saw a period of liberalization similar to that of Europe at the end of the Cold War, with Cuba being the only Latin American country that did not experience any degree of liberalization between 1992 and 2010. Mao consolidated his control of the People's Republic of China with the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, which involved the destruction of all elements of capitalism and traditionalism in China. Many of these governments fell under the control of caudillos, or personalist dictators. Displaying 1 - 20 of 68 articles. Marxist one-party states are sometimes distinguished from other one-party states, but they function similarly. Totalitarianism is a type of governmental system in which the government exerts a domineering level of control over the population. Elites in personalist dictatorships often do not have a professional political career and are unqualified for positions they are given. Far-left and far-right dictatorships used similar methods to maintain power, including cult of personality, concentration camps, forced labour, mass murder, and genocide. The National Liberation Front & People's Army of Vietnam | History, Purpose & Strategy, The Power of the Federal Judiciary: Sources & Consequences, Totalitarian Government | Characteristics & Examples. A dictator is a government leader who rules with unquestioned and unlimited power. Indeed, the 20th century, which witnessed the careers of Atatrk, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Francisco Franco, Mao Tse-tung, Juan Pern, Tito, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sukarno, Kwame Nkrumah, and Charles de Gaulle, could appear in history as the age of plebiscitary dictatorship. Get unlimited access to over 88,000 lessons. [135] Elections are also used to control elites within the dictatorship by requiring them to compete with one another and incentivizing them to build support with the populace, allowing the most popular and most competent elites to be promoted in the regime. Strict government-imposed constraints on social freedoms such as suppression of political opponents and anti-regime activity The presence of a ruling executive with vague, shifting, and loosely-defined powers Modern dictatorships such as Venezuela under Hugo Chvez and Cuba under Fidel Castro typify authoritarian governments. [54], Asia saw several military dictatorships during the post-classical era. Learn a new word every day. [72] The societal upheaval caused by World War I and the unstable peace it produced further contributed to instability that benefited extremist movements and rallied support for their causes. Preference falsification, Internal politics, data scarcity, and restriction of media are just a few examples of the dangers of a personalistic authoritarian regime. [64][65][66], Dictatorship developed as a major form of government in the 19th century, though the concept was not universally seen pejoratively at the time, with both a tyrannical concept and a quasi-constitutional concept of dictatorship understood to exist. [34] When a one-party dictatorship develops gradually through legal means, in can result in conflict between the party organization and the state apparatus and civil service, as the party rules in parallel and increasingly appoints its own members to positions of power. The 69-year-old leader, who has sought to dispel concerns about his health weeks before a crucial election, has canceled several campaign stops. With the decline and disappearance in the 19th and 20th centuries of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became one of the two chief forms of government in use by nations throughout the world, the other being constitutional democracy. [7] The opposition can be an external group, or it can also include current and former members of the dictator's inner circle. A dictatorship is a form of government where one person, or a small group of individuals, can make decisions without effective constitutional limitations. (See personalismo.) What is a dictatorship? [3] Elites must also compete to wield more power than one another, but the amount of power held by elites also depends on their unity. This means that the ruler or party has complete control. Russia has all the working parts of a democratic state, but since Putin took power, experts believe these working parts have been made to serve him and those close to him. Later 20th-century dictators in Latin America were different. The dictatorships that resulted proved highly unstable, and few of the individual dictators were able to satisfy for long the demands of the different groups that supported their bids for power. A dictatorship is a system of government in which a single person or party has complete political power; the dictator often maintains power by employing oppressive methods. They are not held accountable for their actions and are free to do as they please, even limiting citizens' freedom and rights. [98], During World War II, many countries of Central and Eastern Europe had been occupied by the Soviet Union. As the Cold War went on, the Soviet Union increased its influence in Africa, and MarxistLeninist dictatorships developed in several African countries. On paper, Russia is a federal democratic state. - Definition & Examples, Carl Von Clausewitz: Biography, Theory & Quotes, Small Business Project Management: Planning & Tools, Horizontal Expansion in Business: Definition & Examples, Working Scholars Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. By contrast, Soviet communism grew out of a revolutionary theory of society, pursued the goal of revolutionary overthrow of capitalist systems internationally, and employed the complex bureaucratic structures of the Communist Party as mechanisms of governmental organization. in Elementary Education from Northern Arizona University and M.Ed. These dictators may view themselves as impartial in their oversight of a country due to their nonpartisan status, and they may view themselves as "guardians of the state". Try not to focus so much on whether you are right or wrong, but rather, ask yourself if the leaders that you put on the list fit the characteristics ascribed to dictators. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 88,000 The Pern regime, for example, was established by nationalistic army officers committed to a program of national reform and ideological goals. [27] One-party rule also developed in several countries in Africa during decolonization in the 1960s and 1970s, some of which produced authoritarian regimes. A dictatorship is a type of government in which a single personthe dictatoror party has absolute power. Under presidents Fidel Castro and Raul Castro, Cuba has been known for its routine use of false imprisonment, forced separation of families and public beatings to suppress political opposition. [52], Dictatorship is historically associated with the Ancient Greek concept of tyranny, and several ancient Greek rulers have been described as "tyrants" that are comparable to modern dictators. In which one may be a senior politician or any group owns all the authority for ruling over the country. [125] One-party dictatorships are generally more stable and last longer than military or personalist dictatorships. Totalitarianism is the most extreme form of authoritarianism and is considered an oppressive method of ruling a nation. The rights of the people are typically suppressed in a dictatorship, sometimes to a great degree. [73], Dictatorships in Latin America persisted into the 20th century, and further military coups established new regimes, often in the name of nationalism. [73] During World War II, Italy and Germany occupied several countries in Europe, imposing fascist puppet states upon many of the countries that they invaded. Dictators use intimidation, terror, and the suppression of fundamental civil liberties. The crucial elements of both were the identification of the state with a single mass party and of the party with its charismatic leader, the use of an official ideology to legitimize and maintain the regime, the use of terror and propaganda to suppress dissent and stifle opposition, and the use of modern science and technology to control the economy and individual behaviour. [24], Military dictatorships often have traits in common due to the shared background of military dictators. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [142] The use of violence by a dictator is frequently most severe during the first few years of a dictatorship, because the regime has not yet solidified its rule and more detailed information for targeted coercion is not yet available. - Definition, Facts, Characteristics & Examples, Army Leadership: Attributes, Philosophy & Principles, Strategic Leadership: Definition, Characteristics & Examples, Human Resources Management: Help & Review, International Business Management: Help & Review, Using Kanban in Business Management: Help & Review, U.S. Labor Law in the Private Sector Post-1960, High School Business for Teachers: Help & Review, Introduction to Financial Accounting: Certificate Program, Information Systems and Computer Applications: Certificate Program, Introduction to Management: Help and Review, Dictatorship Lesson for Kids: Definition & Facts, Robinson-Patman Act Of 1936: Summary, Overview, Interactive Marketing: Strategies & Examples, What Is Cultural Awareness in Business?

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